The area is characterised by poor literacy levels and low educational levels. Only 2, 4% of the population have a matric and only 1, 4% of the population have post matric qualifications. Comparisons of the levels of education across the municipalities point to strong links between low household incomes, high unemployment and a low human development index.
As a consequence of the lack of formal education, functional literacy for the areas is also low. Functional literacy is estimated at 48% which is also the average for the district. The low levels of education imply a need for adult education and skills development programmes, improvement in access to schools and resource allocation to enhance opportunities for further training.
The municipality has two hospitals and 41 clinics and five (Tembukazi, Mbhayi, Bukazi, Buhlanyanga and Good Hope) more clinics will be constructed in this financial year.
Region D is characterised by poor health levels of children. The region has an under 5 mortality rate of 88 deaths per 1 000 live births, which is much higher than the national average of 59 deaths per 1 000 live births. Immunization coverage is also low and only 58% of children below the age of 2 have been fully immunised which is below the national average of 63%.
The indicators for child health reflect the impact of exclusion and limited access to services and resources in former homeland areas. Given these poor indicators, and given that such a large portion of the region‘s population are in fact children, health service interventions should be particularly focused on child health.
The biggest threat to adult’s health status in the district is HIV/AIDS. The average prevalence rate of Ingquza Hill is 20, 2%. The average prevalence rate for region D is even higher at 22.1% according to statistics released in 2000 (ECSECC, 2002). Since Ingquza Hill is mostly rural, HIV prevention programmes have to deal with problems surrounding access to primary health facilities and services.
The impact of HIV/AIDS is exacerbated by the prevalence of tuberculosis. TB prevalence in region D is 16.4% which is high when compared with the provincial average of 10.3%. TB is generally associated with poverty and over-crowding. These factors are also evident in Ingquza Hill and it is essential that this be monitored to prevent an escalation of this figure.
Safety and security
There are four police stations in the municipal area, namely Flagstaff, Hlababomvu, Lusikisiki and Mtontsasa. Police have established community policing forums. They are also facing difficulties in implementing crime prevention strategies in urban areas because of poor street lighting and overgrown vegetation. Justice is administered through tribal courts and the formal court system. The formal court system is used to refer cases that cannot be resolved to the satisfaction of all parties in tribal courts in the rural areas although some cases do get to the formal courts system before they are tabled in tribal courts.